The expression, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,” has been used by many since it first appeared in print in the 19th century by writer Margaret Wolfe Hungerford. Cliché as it may sound, the idea behind this colloquialism—that perception is a subjective experience—is one that researchers are still working to unravel today. We’ve learned that aspects of perception (auditory, time, etc.) can be altered from depression, for example, and that there is a specific part of the brain dedicated solely to facial perception. Now, scientists are looking at differences in personality and how that affects the way a person visually examines a piece of artwork.
There are many sad elements of John Saunders’ autobiography, Playing Hurt, from the author’s troubled childhood to his traumatic brain injury to his persistent depression. Most heartbreaking, though, is that Saunders died before the book was published, denying him the chance to witness its impact. Readers who know nothing about the sports broadcaster’s career nor have any close ties to mental illness will find the book well-written and engaging. Those directly affected by depression could find it life-changing.
In the introduction to Playing Hurt: My Journey from Despair to Hope, Saunders writes that he wanted “to reach out to the millions of people, especially men, who think they’re alone and can’t ask for help.” As a black man and a former athlete, Saunders, who appeared on ESPN and ABC in various roles from 1986 until his death in August of 2016, was a member of several cohorts often hesitant to admit mental health problems.
A team of neuroscientists and engineers are working to develop a new form of treatment for people who have Parkinson’s disease, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. According to a recent New York Times article, the available methods for treating these conditions currently involve the risks of surgery and can have limited ability with directing electrical pulses to the right areas of the brain.
Dana Alliance member Helen Mayberg, tells the Times:
They have this clever new way to deliver current[s] to a spot of interest deep in the brain and do it without invading the brain…If you didn’t have to actually open up somebody’s brain and put something in it, if it could do what we’re doing now just as well—sign me up.
So far the research has only been conducted in mice, but experts are hoping the technique will work for people, too. “This is something that many of us in the field have wished for for a long time,” says Alexander Rotenberg. Rotenberg is director of the neuromodulation program at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. The article goes on to explain the details of the non-invasive treatment:
The method, called temporal interference, involves beaming different electric frequencies, too high for neurons to respond to, from electrodes on the skull’s surface. The team found that where the currents intersected inside the brain, the frequencies interfered with each other, essentially canceling out all but the difference between them and leaving a low-frequency current that neurons in that location responded to.
For more information on the experimental study, read the full article here.
– Seimi Rurup
This month, Helen Mayberg and her colleagues published a study suggesting that patterns of brain connectivity may predict which people with depression would respond best to talk therapy and which would do better with a drug. This video clip from Fox5 Atlanta describes the study, and shows what it could mean to people who need help for their depression.
Our first work with Mayberg, now a member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, was more than a decade ago, when she was using first positron emission tomography and then deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression (Dana grants in 2006, 2010). She spoke with us about this work in 2012:
Guest blog by Moheb Costandi.
The 2016 meeting marks the tenth anniversary of the INS. In that time, we have seen unprecedented advances in neuroscience and, consequently, a plethora of new technologies developed to further our understanding of the brain, and to fix it when it goes wrong, have emerged.
Even so, our understanding of this complex organ is far from complete. We still know very little about the causes of Alzheimer’s disease, for example, and it is widely believed that the incidence of this debilitating neurodegenerative condition will reach epidemic proportions in the years to come. Similarly, the global burden of mental health issues is expected to grow, and has been projected to affect 15% of the world’s population by the year 2020–disabling more people than AIDS, heart disease, traffic accidents, and wars combined.
Faced with these grim prospects, the U.S., Europe, China, Japan, and other countries have launched, or are set to launch, national large-scale neuroscience initiatives. Leading figures from some of these initiatives will discuss their country’s brain research efforts and the ethical issues they raise in a panel discussion and breakout sessions at the INS meeting.