Grief and depression are distinctly different human experiences, but even experienced psychologists and brain scientists sometimes have trouble teasing the two apart.
Those slivers of contrast were the central theme of “Music and Grief,” a panel discussion held on Tuesday at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The event kicked off the second season of the “Music and the Brain”lecture series (an earlier program on the mystery of Beethoven’s deafness had to be rescheduled for next year).
In keeping with the series’ mission to delve into how brain science gives us insight into the mysteries and benefits of music, the three speakers recounted their personal and professional experiences with music, grief and depression. Live illustrations were provided by the Julliard School graduate string quartet in residence.
Kay Redfield Jamison, a psychiatry professor at Johns Hopkins University and co-director of its Mood Disorders Center, outlined the rawness of her grief following the 2002 death of her husband, Richard Wyatt, then chief of neuropsychiatry at the National Institute of Mental Health. Jamison, who was previously written at length about her struggles with bipolar disorder, read from her new memoir, “Nothing Was the Same,” about how her grief was at times overwhelming, even causing her to give away her entire music collection because of unpleasant associations. But, she said, she didn’t suffer from a single day of depression, which she had greatly feared given her history. Unlike grief, in which the comfort and company of others is powerfully helpful, “the capacity for solace does not exist in depression,” she added.
Her colleague J. Raymond DePaulo, chairman of Johns Hopkins’s psychiatry department, expounded on some of her comments based on his experiences treating more than 15,000 patients. Grief generally begins with a period of numbness that is followed by a bout of “profound sadness” that has ups and downs and varies in length from weeks up to years, he said. People slowly re-engage with normal life, though memories of the lost loved one can bubble up suddenly and unexpectedly for decades afterward.
In contrast, while extreme grief can cause depression, only a fraction of depressed people consider themselves sad. Rather, the dominant feeling in depression is one of hopelessness or emptiness, which erodes people’s self-confidence, causes them to pull away from friends and damages their ability to function in daily life. “We must distinguish these conditions, but it can be extremely difficult, and we must be prudent,” DePaulo said. “We don’t want to medicalize a universal human condition [grief], and at the same time we want to give them solace.”
In between those presentations came an interesting case study: the extreme reaction of musical virtuoso Felix Mendelssohn to the death of his beloved sister Fanny. Ara Guzelimian, provost and dean of the Juilliard School, described how Mendelssohn—then at the height of his prowess and celebrity—largely withdrew from the world, writing only a few pieces of music before his death less than six months later. But his prolific correspondence emphasizes the depths of his feelings, as does his last major composition, String Quartet No. 6 in F minor, Guzelimian said. Characterized by an unrelenting bleakness and harshly conflicting notes, this is “an extraordinary extreme piece of music” with a “music vocabulary utterly uncharacteristic of Mendelssohn,” he said before the Julliard musicians played its first movement. “Every restraint comes off the music.”
Responding to audience questions, the presenters emphasized that music has shown, at least anecdotally, therapeutic benefits both for grief and depression. Pieces like String Quartet No. 6, for instance, can help listeners purge or come to terms with their negative emotions, Guzelimian said, and the Julliard performers remarked about the emotional exhaustion they feel after playing the entire piece. Guzelimian gave a personal example of how music can serve different roles at different times: A particular piece that he had found comforting when undergoing a major surgery, contemplating his own possible death, was unbearable to him shortly after the death of a close friend.
The Dana Foundation funds the Music and the Brain series. Jamison and DePaulo are members of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives.