Senior Dana Alliance Couple Demystifies Dyslexia

It was not long ago that dyslexia was believed to be a sign of laziness, unintelligence, or even bad vision. However, thanks to breakthroughs in research by couple Sally Shaywitz, M.D., and Bennett Shaywitz, M.D., stereotypes around the learning disorder have begun to fade.

Affecting approximately one in five people, dyslexia is characterized by a difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words, which is called decoding. Also known as a reading disability, dyslexia affects areas of the brain that process language. Dyslexia is not considered a disease, and its causes are neurobiological and genetic. Those affected by it can fall anywhere on a wide spectrum, and treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person’s needs.

While it has been studied before, the Shaywitzes are often credited with many of the breakthroughs regarding the disorder. Sally, 76, and Bennett, 79, are both Dana Alliance for Brain Initiative members who have been married for 55 years. Having met in 1963 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the couple now run the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity and have recently updated a study they began in 1983, according to their recent profile in The New York Times.

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AAAS: Brain-changing power of music prompts calls for more education, therapy

Growing evidence that music training can enhance certain mental abilities, can alleviate the symptoms of learning disorders, and can restore lost functions in people with neurological damage has prompted calls to increase school music programs and therapeutic treatments.

At a press conference Saturday at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Nina Kraus, a communications disorder professor at Northwestern University, and Gottfried Schlaug, an associate professor of neurology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, summarized recent research outlining the profound ability of music to enhance or restore brain pathways and the implications of those findings for health and education.

Kraus pointed out that music is reflected literally by the brain. After hearing a sound, a person's brain waves come to mirror that melody, she said, playing several pairs of music sequences and brain waves to demonstrate. But music exerts its most profound effects after extensive training, by increasing not just the ability to learn and play music but also facility with memory, attention, and pattern recognition. In fact, she said, her work suggests that intensive music training may be key to treating or ameliorating childhood learning disabilities, as it greatly enhances the abilities that suffer the most in those conditions.

In a recent study, for instance, she found that trained musicians have a much greater ability to discern speech in noisy situations, such as crowded restaurants or bars, than those without any musical experience, a kind of pattern-recognition task some children also have great difficulty with. The finding, which appeared in the December 2009 issue of the journal Ear and Hearing, echoes research her group presented at the 2009 Society for Neuroscience meeting showing that trained musicians have enhanced abilities to focus on and memorize sounds, other abilities lacking in people with dyslexia, autism, and related disorders. This suggests, she said, that elementary and secondary schools are making a mistake when they cut out music programs. "The education and remediation possibilities of music training are very encouraging," she said.

Schlaug played several videos showing the power of melodic intonation therapy (MIT) to rewire seriously damaged brains. As we have described previously, MIT is a technique developed for treating nonfluent aphasia, or an inability to speak due to damage, usually from a stroke, to the language-processing regions in the brain's left hemisphere. During the treatment, a music therapist teaches the patient to feel out the melody of specific phrases by tapping his or her hand and then to repeat the phrases aloud in a singsong voice. Typically, the treatment course is intense, consisting of 70 to 80 sessions over several weeks.

The results can be spectacular; most patients, Schlaug said, recover significant amounts of speaking ability, and one patient even felt comfortable enough to make a short public speech. In one particularly compelling video clip, a man went from mumbling nonsense phrases to being able to recite his full mailing address after 75 therapy sessions. "These kinds of music-making therapies are very useful for patients suffering from strokes and other neurological disorders," Schlaug said. "It engages parts of the brain that are not normally engaged and links parts of the brain that are not normally linked."

Although the therapy has shown promising results, it is still in the early stages of testing, Schlaug added. If it pans out, tens of thousands of stroke victims could benefit from the therapy each year in the United States alone. The true challenge then, he said, would be gaining widespread traction for the treatment, by getting therapists to feel comfortable with the oddness of singing with their patients and by ensuring that insurance companies reimburse people for MIT sessions.

Schlaug has been a pioneer in the field of music and the brain studies; some of his research is funded by the Dana Foundation. Mentioned only obliquely in his presentation, for instance, was a four-year study he is helping to conduct that compares the cognitive abilities of children undergoing regular music training with those who are not. Not surprisingly, he and his colleagues have found that, after 15 months, children who practice music showed more improvements in motor skills and melody and rhythm identification tasks related directly to music. But after 30 months, the results seem more in line with those of Kraus and her lab, with the children beginning to show suggestive, though not significant, signs of "far transfer" benefits—increases in most distantly related skills, such as vocabulary and abstract reasoning.

–Aalok Mehta

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