The question of how individual differences in behavior and personality develop—especially in terms of the interaction between genes and the environment—has proved to be a formidable challenge in neuroscience. In “One of a Kind: The Neurobiology of Individuality,” the featured Cerebrum article for June, Richard J. Davidson, Ph.D., impressively summarizes mounting new imaging evidence that suggests brain circuits involved in our emotional responses are highly plastic and change with experience, affecting our disposition. He also points to new research that suggests that psychological interventions can further harness brain plasticity to promote positive behavioral changes—changes that increase resilience, well-being, and altruistic behavior.
Since love is on the brain today, it seemed the perfect opportunity to look back at Dana’s articles on love, lust, and attraction. The selected articles span more than a decade, and included in the mix is a Cerebrum piece from Rutgers’ anthropologist Helen Fisher, who is something of a go-to love expert for the media and is sure to be quoted in numerous articles today.
Brains Do It: Lust, Attraction, and Attachment
By Helen E. Fisher
January 01, 2000
With classic understatement, anthropologist Helen Fisher suggests that the three emotional systems—lust, attraction, and attachment—“are somewhat disconnected in human beings…” But the situation is not hopeless, Fisher argues; the role of the prefrontal cortex in humans is to control and direct these emotions—if we so choose.
Neurobiology Affects Love and Attraction
By Kathlyn Stone
January 02, 2009
Research presented at the 2008 Society for Neuroscience meeting revealed aspects of what happens in the brain of someone feeling intense love, as well as the sensory and molecular processes involved in love and mating.
The Chemistry of Love: In Search of the Elusive Human Pheromones
By Brenda Patoine
Chemical messages wafting off other people’s bodies clearly influence sexual attraction and mating behavior in humans. Just don’t call them pheromones – yet.
The Brain Signature of Love
By Kayt Sukel
February 10, 2011
Neuroscientists are demonstrating that romantic love is represented by a unique pattern of activation in the brain.
Happy Valentine’s Day!
-Ann L. Whitman
How do you keep things fresh in a relationship after 55 years of marriage? If you are prolific Columbia University scientists Eric and Denise Kandel, you collaborate on a research project for the first time.
While every neuroscience undergraduate knows Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel, his wife, Denise, has some serious science chops of her own. A professor of sociomedical science at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health, Denise’s main research interests center on risk factors and consequences of drug use. Decades of epidemiological research suggested that smoking acted as a gateway to harder drugs. After hearing Eric give a lecture on cocaine, plasticity, and histone acetylation, she wondered if perhaps an epigenetic model might help explain the relationship between nicotine and cocaine addiction.
“That’s how the whole thing started, really. It triggered this idea,” she says. “And it is important to mention because I think that oftentimes a scientific collaboration or scientific success arises out of a chance event and a prepared mind.”
Still, she didn’t ask her husband to collaborate on this particular “chance event” at first. “I didn’t think he was interested,” she says matter-of-factly. So, instead, she asked him to recommend a few other scientists who might want to collaborate. None of them were available.
“I don’t know why but Denise had trouble coming up with another collaborator,” Eric says. “But as we discussed it more, I felt the problem was interesting so, at that point, I stepped in. But it was the failure to come up with another collaborator that really encouraged me to try it.”
The study, heralded as a landmark experiment by both the neurobiological and epidemiological communities, demonstrated for the first time how nicotine can act as a “gateway,” accelerating the cellular and epigenetic processes that facilitate drug addiction (see Dana's story about it).
When I asked the Kandels how well their personal partnership translated to one in the lab, Eric laughed. “It was difficult at the beginning. Denise asked a lot of questions that I felt were interfering with my own line of thought,” he said. “But I soon realized that I needed to hear those questions. That’s the point of collaboration. You pick two very different approaches to address a problem. Once I realized that, we fell into step.”
“Eric was exasperated because I said we needed to do more work on the figures for the paper,” she says. “But he admits now that I was right. The figures look very good.”
“Yes, they do,” he says. “The figures look very good.”
And any advice to other couples on the brink of scientific collaboration?
“It’s been very exciting to work together,” says Denise. “But it’s not easy.”
“I don’t think one can give general advice to the lovelorn here,” Eric adds. “We’re both strong, independent people and I think, in any collaboration with two strong, independent people, there’s going to be some awkwardness initially. But I have a sense of enormous satisfaction that we accomplished this together. And I’m glad that we’re continuing on together.”
The two are currently working on a study to see whether alcohol results in a similar gateway mechanism. And they hope to later examine marijuana, too. And while the two are excited by the scientific possibilities, they admit they are pleased to have the chance to work together, too.
“It’s wonderful to be able to spend this time together,” says Eric. “And it’s wonderful to finally have a way to look at these questions about gateway drugs. I’m hoping that our collaboration will inspire a whole new field of translational epidemiology.”
What better Valentine could a scientific couple ask for?
Sukel's first book, Dirty Minds: How our brains influence love, sex, and relationships, is available now.