The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City presented “Neuroscience Night: Our Sensational Brain” last Thursday night in celebration of Brain Awareness Week. Using interactive activities, the event showcased the astounding capabilities of the human brain and the how it works in concert with our senses to interpret the world around us.
The idea of the mind is a relatively modern concept. In medieval times, it was believed that people were divided in two parts, the physical body and the spiritual soul. With the emergence of the scientific revolution and thinkers such as John Locke, the mind and secular life became an important topic in discussions about self-awareness. Since then, we have been trying to understand not only what it means to possess a mind, but also the neuroscience behind it.
That was part of the message at “My Neurons, My Self,” a panel discussion at the World Science Festival in New York City. Three eminent neuroscientists and a philosopher provided insight into the “mind-brain” problem, focusing on what defines the self. “What we don’t have yet is a way of bridging mental experience with the brain in a coherent model that allows for mental intention; we still are a ways off from solving the mind-brain problem,” said George Makari, M.D., director of the Institute of the History of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College, in introducing the panel.
What makes someone a genius? According to Nobel Laureate Eric R. Kandel, M.D., it is a person who is a “game-changer” and who “through their work, permanently changed the way we perceive the world.” It is less about IQ and more about “drive, persistence, and creativity.” At the 92nd Street Y’s third annual 7 Days of Genius in Manhattan, four eminent scientists, arguably geniuses themselves, discussed historical geniuses of the mind, brain, and molecules. The three speakers included two members of the Dana Alliance, Larry W. Swanson, Ph.D., and Thomas M. Jessell, Ph.D., as well as Robert Michels, M.D. Kandel, also a Dana Alliance member, moderated the event.
Over the next three months, the Dana Foundation blog is pleased to host a new blog series, “Tales from the Lab,” featuring two neuroscience graduate student guest bloggers: Tim Balmer from Georgia State University and Grace Lindsay from Columbia University. Tim’s contributions will focus on life as a neuroscience graduate student and Grace will focus on neuroplasticity. This is Grace’s first blog in the series.
Infancy is a tumultuous time for the brain. A set of neurons with connections in constant flux are working to process an onslaught of sensory signals; yet the connections themselves are guided by the very signals they’re processing. Despite the apparent chaos, we all end up with roughly the same hardware: an occipital lobe for seeing, a temporal lobe for hearing, parietal lobe for sensing touch, etc.
But what happens when those brain-shaping signals can’t get into the brain? For example, in the case of Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA), a genetic mutation disrupts the function of cells in the eye, leaving people with LCA essentially blind from birth. This lack of visual input throws a wrench into the brain’s normal plan of development, and it shows in the brain anatomy of adults with these kinds of disorders. Without visual information to process, the occipital lobe is reassigned to other tasks. PET and fMRI studies of congenitally blind humans have shown activation of the occipital lobe during processing of sounds, smells, and touch (such as braille). Such activation is not seen when imaging the brains of sighted people, or even those who lost their vision later in life. These findings demonstrate the remarkable plasticity of the developing brain to adapt its activity and structure in order to best process the signals it receives.
By illuminating certain proteins and blocking and unblocking just one of
the myriad pathways inside a neuron, a team from the University of Southern
California recorded, on video, how proteins shuttle along inside a jellyfish cell (see video after the jump).
The short video shows vesicles carrying the glowing proteins entering
both the axon and the dendrite sections of the neuron; when they enter the
axon, though, they stop and reverse course, the researchers said.